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Así es como sobreviven los peces arcoíris en el abrasador desierto de Australia

Un viaje al centro de Australia implica llenar su 4×4 hasta el tope con equipo de supervivencia, agua y alimentos. Sin embargo, los peces han logrado persistir en ese paisaje reseco durante miles de años, ¿cómo lo hacen?

En el Laboratorio de Ecología Molecular de Flinders nos dedicamos a averiguarlo. investigar examinó el pez arcoíris en Australia, para descubrir cómo se aferran a la vida en bolsas de agua aisladas en el desierto.

Las bolsas de agua en el desierto solo pueden albergar pequeñas poblaciones de peces. Una pequeña población significa un pequeño acervo genético, lo que puede conducir a la endogamia y a la mala salud, como a veces vemos en las especies en peligro de extinción.

Pero descubrimos que incluso las poblaciones pequeñas pueden adaptarse a los entornos hostiles de los pozos de agua y los pequeños arroyos.La vida encuentra un camino, incluso en uno de los entornos más extremos e impredecibles de la Tierra.

Prosperando en el centro de Australia

Pez arcoiris nativo del desierto (Melanotaenia espléndida tatei) viven en los desiertos del centro de Australia y crecen hasta alrededor de 9 cm y generalmente son plateados e iridiscentes, con un patrón a cuadros amarillo y verde en las aletas.

Las poblaciones de peces arcoíris del desierto viven en hábitats tranquilos y de flujo lento, incluidos ríos impermanentes, pozos de agua, lagos, pozos que fluyen y presas de almacenamiento.

Sus poblaciones fluctúan durante los ciclos de auge y declive Durante las raras inundaciones en el desierto, los peces arcoíris se reproducen en grandes cantidades y se propagan a lo largo de arroyos temporales y aguas de inundación.



Leer más: El pez más pequeño de Australia entre los 22 en peligro de extinción dentro de dos décadas


El pez arcoíris del desierto vive en hábitats tranquilos y de flujo lento.
Gunther Schmida

Nuestros hallazgos

Nuestra investigación buscó determinar cómo persisten las poblaciones de peces arcoíris en las regiones desérticas del centro de Australia y si sus genomas muestran evidencia de adaptación a las duras condiciones locales.

Recolectamos 344 peces arcoíris del desierto de 18 ríos y pozos de agua de la vasta y árida cuenca del lago Eyre, y de las regiones semiáridas de la cuenca Murray-Darling.

Luego comparamos la variación en los genomas de estos peces con datos de imágenes satelitales sobre la presencia de agua superficial en el centro de Australia.

Descubrimos que la selección natural en el pez arco iris es más fuerte en las regiones del desierto que tienen condiciones más secas.Los peces de la región occidental muy árida del centro de Australia se adaptan de manera diferente a las condiciones secas que los de la región oriental semiárida.

También encontramos que estas variaciones genéticas son transportadas por los peces a medida que se dispersan durante las inundaciones.Los peces que se adaptaron previamente a condiciones muy duras se retiraron con las aguas de la inundación para esperar los períodos de sequía a menudo prolongados en pozos de agua pequeños y aislados.

Esto sugiere que los genes adaptados a las condiciones más áridas pueden ayudar a las pequeñas poblaciones a persistir en ambientes hostiles.Estas adaptaciones también podrían ayudar a la especie a persistir en climas futuros, que se espera que sean más secos y con eventos más extremos.

La diferencia adaptativa más intrigante involucró una mutación en la codificación de un gen que lleva a algunos peces a producir una proteína de unión a nucleótidos de guanina ligeramente diferente.Los peces usan estas proteínas para el gusto y el olfato, para detectar la salinidad y el flujo de agua, y para controlar la sensibilidad a la luz para la visión .

El pez arco iris en Australia Central puede sobrevivir a las duras condiciones debido a esta diferencia en la proteína y otras adaptaciones, lo que mejoraría su capacidad para sentir el medio ambiente y cómo varía según las estaciones.

La variación se puede comparar con la variante reciente de Omicron COVID-19. mutaciones en la proteína espiga en algunas variantes puede ayudar a su propagación entre los seres humanos.

piscina poco profunda en el paisaje del desierto
Los genes adaptados a las condiciones más áridas pueden ayudar a las pequeñas poblaciones a persistir en entornos hostiles.
chris brauer

Mirando hacia el futuro

Nuestra investigación encontró que la variación genética se puede mantener en pequeñas poblaciones de peces arcoíris para permitir que la especie sobreviva en el desierto.

Los hallazgos sugieren que el tamaño de la población del pez arcoíris del desierto, al menos durante los períodos muy secos del año, es menor que el que comúnmente se cree necesario en la naturaleza para conservación de especies y para la adaptación a futuros cambios climáticos, lo que da la vuelta al pensamiento tradicional de que las poblaciones pequeñas son callejones sin salida evolutivos.

A medida que empeora el cambio climático, nuestros hallazgos resaltan la importancia de conservar los caudales naturales de los ríos para permitir que las especies de agua dulce respondan y se adapten.



Leer más: 2021 fue uno de los años más calurosos registrados, y también podría ser el más frío que volveremos a ver


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