Panda gigante simpátrico y panda rojo

El panda rojo no es una especie, sino dos

Nota: Esta revisión en línea se actualiza y revisa continuamente, tan pronto como estén disponibles los resultados de nuevas investigaciones científicas. Por tanto, presenta información de vanguardia sobre el tema que cubre.

El panda gigante ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) y el panda rojo ( Ailurus fulgens ) son carnívoros vegetarianos que se especializan en comer bambú. Las dos especies difieren mucho en tamaño: el panda gigante más grande pesa entre 65 y 110 kilogramos, mientras que el panda rojo pesa entre 3,7 y 6,2 kilogramos (Johnson et al. 1988; Roberts y Gittleman 1984). En las fotografías de arriba, el panda gigante se muestra en la esquina superior izquierda, mientras que el panda rojo se muestra en la esquina inferior derecha.

Aunque ambos pandas son nativos de Asia, sus áreas de distribución están en su mayoría separadas. Las dos especies se encuentran juntas solo en la provincia de Sichuan, China, en las siguientes 4 cadenas montañosas: Liangshan, Qionglai, Minshan y Xiangling (Wei et al 2000). En estas montañas, el panda gigante y el panda rojo comparten los mismos hábitats y plantas de bambú.

Los ecologistas usan la palabra simpatía para describir la situación en la que dos especies se encuentran en la misma área. La palabra alopatría se usa para describir la situación opuesta: donde dos especies se encuentran en áreas geográficas separadas. En este artículo, revisamos estudios de panda gigante simpátrico y panda rojo en la provincia de Sichuan, China, y resumimos las diferencias ecológicas entre estos dos especialistas en bambú.

Separación dietética

Ambos pandas se alimentan principalmente de bambú durante todo el año. De vez en cuando probarán otros alimentos, pero el bambú constituye el 99% de la dieta del panda gigante y el 98% de la dieta del panda rojo (Wei et al. 1999). Desde mediados del verano hasta octubre, el panda rojo se diferencia del panda gigante en que agrega una variedad de frutos arbóreos a su dieta, incluidos Prunus , Rubus , Rosa , Sorbus , Ribes y Sabina squamata , un abeto.  

Ambos pandas se alimentan de la misma especie de bambú, pero se especializan en comer diferentes partes de la planta de bambú. El panda gigante se alimenta con mayor frecuencia de tallos de bambú, mientras que el panda rojo se alimenta con mayor frecuencia de hojas de bambú (Johnson et al. 1988; Wei et al. 1999). Por ejemplo, en las montañas Xiangling, Wei et al. (1999) encontraron las siguientes partes de bambú en las dietas anuales de los dos pandas: panda rojo (90% hojas, 9% brotes), panda gigante (55% tallos, 35% hojas, 10% brotes).

Las mandíbulas del panda gigante están más desarrolladas que las del panda rojo, lo que se correlaciona con las diferencias dietéticas mencionadas en el párrafo anterior. Debido a que el panda rojo se especializa en comer hojas de bambú, no necesita las mandíbulas más fuertes del tallo ni el panda gigante que se alimenta de brotes (Zhang et al. 2007).

Separación de microhábitats

En comparación con el panda gigante, el panda rojo frecuenta microhábitats con densidades más altas de arbustos, troncos caídos y tocones de árboles (Wei et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2004). El panda rojo trepa por estas estructuras para alcanzar hojas de bambú de alto crecimiento, que luego corta los tallos para comer (Johnson et al. 1988; Wei 1999; Zhang et al. 2004).

En contraste, el panda gigante muerde los tallos enteros de la planta de bambú y luego sujeta los tallos para morder las hojas (Wei et al. 1999). También dobla los tallos de bambú en crecimiento con una pata delantera y las hojas de los cultivos se desprenden de la parte superior (Johnson et al. 1988). En los microhábitats seleccionados por Red Panda, la altura de las plantas de bambú es más corta en promedio que en los microhábitats seleccionados por Giant Panda, aparentemente porque las hojas de follaje de los bambúes más cortos son más fáciles de acceder para el Red Panda (Zhang et al. 2004).

El panda gigante frecuenta terreno más llano, generalmente con una pendiente de menos del 10-20% (Reid y Hu 1991; Wei et al. 1996, 2000; Zhang et al. 2006; Qi et al. 2009). Por el contrario, el panda rojo frecuenta pendientes más empinadas.

La asociación del panda rojo con pendientes más pronunciadas podría explicarse por su preferencia por sitios con mejor acceso a hojas de bambú de mayor crecimiento. Wei y col. (2000) señalan que «en pendientes más empinadas, los rododendros tienen ramas más largas dentro de las hojas de bambú y es más probable que los troncos caídos se crucen con la capa de hojas», lo que facilita que el panda rojo alcance las hojas de bambú.

Sin embargo, también son posibles otras explicaciones. Por ejemplo, debido a que el panda rojo es más pequeño que el panda gigante, es posible que necesiten una mayor densidad de arbustos en pendientes más empinadas para esconderse mejor de los depredadores. 

Por otro lado, algunos investigadores creen que la preferencia del panda gigante por pendientes más suaves se basa en la conservación de energía. La tasa de consumo de energía del panda gigante es solo marginalmente más alta que su gasto de energía, por lo que evitar pendientes pronunciadas lo ayuda a reducir el uso de energía.

Carreteras

Los pandas gigantes visitan las carreteras con más frecuencia que los pandas rojos (Qi et al. 2009). Una posible explicación es que los caminos que atraviesan áreas boscosas aumentan la cantidad de borde del bosque, lo que ofrece al panda gigante más alimento que los interiores del bosque porque el panda gigante prefiere alimentarse en los bordes de los parches de bambú (Qi et al.2003; Schaller et al. 1985; Yu et al.2003).

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